The Scottish wildcat, one of the country's rarest species, could become extinct "at any moment", conservationists have warned.
There could be as few as 35 purebreds left in the wild, according to information gathered by the Scottish Wildcat Association (SWA).
Numbers have dwindled in their northern habitat due to cross-breeding with domestic or feral cats.
"There may be as few as 35 but that number could be higher or lower - the problem is we're not sure," SWA chairman Steve Piper said. "They could be extinct within months if the numbers are below 100. They could effectively become extinct at any moment."
The Scottish wildcat is the only native member of the cat family to be found in the wild in Britain, according to Scottish Natural Heritage.
In recent years research has suggested about 400 purebreds remain.
The SWA collated information from its own research and from the Cairngorms Wildcat Project and Oxford University. The association looked at records of camera trap sightings, eyewitness reports and road kills.
Mr Piper said genetic testing was needed to establish the population accurately.
He added: "We get people saying 'I used to see them all the time five to ten years ago'.
"It seems that we may have crossed a threshold over the last five to ten years. What we can't do is have another three years of camera traps. We need the kind of survey backed up by genetic testing."